= $i){ $i = $offset; $result[] = $offset; } } } $firstdot= $result[0]; $seconddot= $result[1]; $thirddot=$result[2]; $part1=substr ( $ip, 0, $firstdot); $part2=substr ( $ip, $firstdot+1, $seconddot-$firstdot-1); $part3=substr ( $ip, $seconddot+1, $thirddot-$seconddot-1); $part4=substr ( $ip, $thirddot+1, 3); $decimalip= $part1*16777216+$part2*65536+$part3*256+$part4; $sql = "SELECT * FROM `iplist` WHERE `ipfrom` <= $decimalip and `ipto` >= $decimalip"; $countrylist = mysql_query($sql) or die("$sql"); $hits=mysql_num_rows ($countrylist); $countryval="Unknown"; $stateval=" "; $cityval=" "; if($hits>0){ $row = mysql_fetch_assoc($countrylist); $countryval=$row['country']; $stateval=$row['state']; $cityval=$row['city']; } // echo ("hits: ".$hits." IP: ".$ip." Decimal IP: ".$decimalip." Retval: ".$retval); $_SESSION['country']=$countryval; $_SESSION['state']=$stateval; $_SESSION['city']=$cityval; $rawkeyword_string = $_GET['searchval']; // In case the search value is passed between pages $referertext=$_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER']; $_SESSION['refererstring']=$referertext; $parsed_url=parse_url($referertext); $querystring=$parsed_url; $googleresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'google'); $yahooresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'yahoo'); $bingresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'bing'); $AOLresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'aol'); $askresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'ask.com'); $dogpileresult=strpos($parsed_url['host'],'dogpile.com'); if($googleresult !== false): parse_str($parsed_url['query'],$parsed_query_string); $rawkeyword_string=$parsed_query_string['q'].'[G]'; $_SESSION['keyword']=$rawkeyword_string; $_SESSION['engine']="Google"; elseif($yahooresult !== false): parse_str($parsed_url['query'],$parsed_query_string); $rawkeyword_string=$parsed_query_string['p'].'[Y]'; $_SESSION['keyword']=$rawkeyword_string; $_SESSION['engine']="Yahoo"; elseif($bingresult !== false): parse_str($parsed_url['query'],$parsed_query_string); $rawkeyword_string=$parsed_query_string['q'].'[B]'; $_SESSION['keyword']=$rawkeyword_string; $_SESSION['engine']="Bing"; elseif($AOLresult !== false): parse_str($parsed_url['query'],$parsed_query_string); $rawkeyword_string=$parsed_query_string['query'].'[AOL]'; $_SESSION['keyword']=$rawkeyword_string; $_SESSION['engine']="AOL"; elseif($askresult !== false): parse_str($parsed_url['query'],$parsed_query_string); $rawkeyword_string=$parsed_query_string['q'].'[Ask]'; $_SESSION['keyword']=$rawkeyword_string; $_SESSION['engine']="Ask.com"; else: $_SESSION['engine']="None"; $_SESSION['keyword']="None"; $destination="Landed"; endif; } // Session variables are now defined $keyword_string=rawurlencode($_SESSION['keyword']); // Write to Database $db = MYSQL_CONNECT($roothostname,$rootusername, $rootpassword) OR DIE("Unable to connect to database"); $db1 = mysql_select_db($dbName, $db) or die ("Couldn't select database."); $time = date("Y-m-d H:i:s"); $justdate = date("Y-m-d"); $ip=$_SESSION['hostip']; $kw=$_SESSION['keyword']; $country=$_SESSION['country']; $engine=$_SESSION['engine']; $thissession=session_id(); $referertext=$_SESSION['referer']; $pagename="toolsarticle"; $qry="INSERT INTO `clicks` (`date_clicked` , `justdate`, `ip_address` , `page`, `keyword`,`engine`,`session`, `dest_url`, `country`, `referer`, `city`, `state`) VALUES ('$time', '$justdate','$ip' , '$pagename' , '$kw', '$engine', '$thissession', '$destination', '$country','$referertext','$cityval','$stateval');"; mysql_query($qry) or die("something went wrong"); ?> Pricing Studies and Internet Economics
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Pricing Studies and Internet Economics

We pay our bills with the Internet. We register our personal information with web sites. We purchase our needs and wants on the Internet. People will buy because it is easy to click from home in your pajamas at 3am. No matter what economic downturn may be aloft. There's the economy and then there's the Internet economy. Internet economics includes the economics of doing business from the proprietary point of view as well as the user point of view. Pricing those economics is the tough part. You have to work to establish the demand for your product, figure out how to use that demand to increase revenue, and work with your niche to establish pricing policy while adhering to pricing regulations.

Internet Economics

  • Internet Economics: An introduction to the history and structure of the Internet and two popular misconceptions of its economics: that the Internet is free and that the government pays for it.
  • Network Economics: Resources regarding external networks, interconnection, and technical specs and services, their costs in time and money.
  • Market Trends and Analysis: This position paper examines the Internet economic boom known as e-commerce and its threats to personal security and how to deploy methods to protect that security and privacy.
  • Economic Internet Issues: Large FTC report covering five main Internet economic issues: transmission, pricing theory, pricing goods and services, network externalities, and e-Commerce taxation. The report is from 2000, slightly dated, but with excellent information to compare with the state of Internet economics today.
  • The Economics of Peering: Peering is the usually free exchange of Internet traffic between Internet Service Providers and networks. How does this affect the neutrality of the Internet?
  • Net Neutrality Bad for Consumers?: The contention from Britain's telecommunications regulator is yes. How does this view affect the Internet's economics in the U.S. and globally?
  • Economics of Interconnections: UC Berkeley's Hal Varian talks about peering and other issues among Internet providers.
  • Workshop on Internet Economics: Read the 2009 report from the CAIDA conference which worked to "outline a concrete agenda for the emerging but empirically stunted field of Internet infrastructure economics."
  • Net Neutrality and Broadband: The economics of the Internet is discussed in this paper by Sterns professor Nicholas Economides.
  • Historical Economic Internet FAQ: Includes basic history, access, and some techno-speak about how the economic of the Internet works.

Pricing Internet Resources

  • Internet Resource Pricing: Dynamic pricing of network resources. Written with four aspects in mind: dynamic pricing, social welfare, integrative service support, and cooperative users.
  • Pricing Strategy: Spells out pricing objectives, estimating revenue, and understanding customer demand and how it all relates to your Internet marketing plan's pricing strategies.
  • Fax Pricing: Enter information, then compare fax service pricing across the Internet.
  • Broadband Pricing: Get TI level broadband pricing for your Internet service.
  • Pricing and Marketing Strategy: Learn how to use the pricing matrix to set the best price for your product.
  • Perplexing Pricing Strategies: Strategies that work despite odd ways of pricing and reasons why.
  • Adaptive Pricing Strategies: Game-theoretic, myoptimal, and derivative-following strategies are summarized.
  • Price Discrimination: Microeconomics of pricing and price discriminatory practices which is widespread in all markets, include the Internet.
  • Internet Pricing Changes: Could there be serious economic effects?
  • Dynamic Pricing: Is it efficient? Paper analyzes the trend as the future of e-commerce.

Papers on Pricing

Economic Internet Security and Privacy

  • Internet Security News: News feed updating users on issues and news regarding internet security, pricing, and privacy issues.
  • Economics of Privacy: Is there an economic trade-off with the intrusion of your Internet privacy?
  • The Economics of Botnets: Botnets are malware that criminals use to make millions stealing your information for its own resources. Botnets are a major consideration in Internet pricing and marketing strategy.
  • Imagining the Internet: How to assure the open architecture of the Internet despite the growing threats to Internet security and privacy.
  • Economic Consequences: What are the consequences of sharing security information?
  • The Economics of Information Security: Measuring security information, economic challenges to privacy, and how to manage the risks.
  • Managing Security: Tips on how to manage your IT security when there is an economic downturn.
  • Consumer Protection: The issue is open architecture of the Internet, its global economic status, and how to secure its users privacy while still being open to gathering marketing information.
  • Economic Mechanism for Better Security: Paper details the game-theoretic model based certification system for tighter Internet security.
  • Cybercrime Threats: Symantec's press release summarizes trends in cybercrime.

Trade Balance

  • State of the Nation: Monitors the state of the U.S. economy. Use this resource to see specifics on the economy for any research you may need regarding trade.
  • Trade Deficit: Bloomberg Businessweek recent article about falling exports and the consequences of those exports on trade.
  • Trade Costs and Benefits: Is the U.S. playing on a level trading field or are the costs of globalization too much? Find out in this June 2010 analysis from the Democratic Leadership Council.
  • International Economics: Study center in international economics and trade, lots of information resources, blogs, articles and free chapters.
  • CIA World Factbook: Look up trade and economic data on any country here.
  • Trade and Global Markets: Putting the U.S. trade deficit in perspective. From the Progressive Policy Institute.
  • Eurostat: The European Commission's trade and economic database of financial statistics.
  • International Trade Balance: Netherlands has the highest international trade balance with the United States: $2,244,000,000.00.
  • U.S. Trade Balance: Imports and exports by partner country in 2009.
  • Balance of Trade Reports: How does one country interact economically with another? Get the information of each country's balance of payments.

Economic Glossaries

  • Economic Glossary and Diagrams: Browse the glossary by clicking on the letter of the term you are searching for or type a word or phrase into the search box.
  • Terms of Trade: Deardorff's glossary focuses on international trade terms.
  • Hypertext Financial Glossary: Over 18,000 hyperlinks and 8,000 terms to muddle through. Includes iPhone application.
  • Econterms: Easy-to-understand economic glossary for beginners.
  • Economics A-Z: Great topical glossary from "The Economist" magazine.


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